This page highlights relevant research articles, reviews and commentaries from peer-reviewed journals.

JAMA: Human Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes: An Effective, Less-Expensive Option

Affordability of insulin has become a major issue for patients with diabetes in the United States. The price of insulin, particularly insulin analogues, has increased substantially over the past 2 decades.

Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology: If PBMs Guard Access to Drugs, Then Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodies? (Who Will Guard the Guardians?)

Insulin prices in the United States have risen dramatically in recent years, yet pharmacies cannot provide a stable price for a given insulin due to factors that are not widely understood.

JAMA: The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States: Origins and Prospects for Reform

The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers.

Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism: Interchangeability Among Reference Insulin Analogues and Their Biosimilars: Regulatory Framework, Study Design and Clinical Implications

Biosimilars are regulated differently from small‐molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product.

Diabetes Spectrum: Insulin in America: A Right or a Privilege?

Even as a medical student, I was interested in the history of insulin. As an endocrine fellow, I read The Discovery of Insulin by Michael Bliss.

JAMA: Expenditures and Prices of Antihyperglycemic Medications in the United States: 2002-2013

A recent study demonstrated widespread substitution of analog for human insulin and rising out-of-pocket costs in privately insured people with type 2 diabetes in the United States.

The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Constraints and challenges in access to insulin: a global perspective

Substantial attention has been given to the issue of access to medicines for communicable diseases; however, access to essential medicines for diabetes, especially insulin, has had insufficient focus.

The Lancet: Evolution of insulin patents and market exclusivities in the USA

The cost of management of complications from diabetes in the USA amounted to US$263 billion (about £171 billion) in 2013, up from $92 billion (about £60 billion) in 2002.

JAMA: Trends in Medicaid Reimbursements for Insulin From 1991 Through 2014

Insulin is a vital medicine for patients with diabetes mellitus. Newer, more expensive insulin products and the lack of generic insulins in the United States have increased costs for patients and insurers.

JAMA: Costs Associated With Using Different Insulin Preparations

In 2012, an estimated 29 million individuals, or 9.3% of the US population, had diabetes, with 30.8% of these patients using insulin.

Diabetes Care: The Lifetime Cost of Diabetes and Its Implications for Diabetes Prevention

To assess the cost implications of diabetes prevention, it is important to know the lifetime medical cost of people with diabetes relative to those without.

JAMA: Use and Out-of-Pocket Costs of Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus From 2000 Through 2010

Insulin analogs are molecularly altered forms of insulin. Compared with human synthetic and animal insulin for treatment of type 2 diabetes, short-acting analogs may offer flexible dosing and convenience, long-acting analogs less nocturnal hypoglycemia, but both at greater cost.

Diabetes Care: Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012

This study updates previous estimates of the economic burden of diagnosed diabetes and quantifies the increased health resource use and lost productivity associated with diabetes in 2012.