JAMA: Use and Out-of-Pocket Costs of Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus From 2000 Through 2010

Insulin analogs are molecularly altered forms of insulin. Compared with human synthetic and animal insulin for treatment of type 2 diabetes, short-acting analogs may offer flexible dosing and convenience, long-acting analogs less nocturnal hypoglycemia, but both at greater cost. Because insulin analogs have become increasingly popular, we examined trends in insulin use, out-of-pocket expenditures, and severe hypoglycemic events among privately insured US adults with type 2 diabetes from 2000 through 2010.

Among privately insured adults in the United States, use of insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes increased from 10% in 2000 to 15% in 2010 in the context of widespread adoption of insulin analogs.

Out-of-pocket expenditures increased from a median of $19 to $36.

Severe hypoglycemic events declined slightly but this was not statistically significant.

Kasia J. Lipska, MD, MHS; Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS; Holly K. Van Houten, BA; et al

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