JAMA: Expenditures and Prices of Antihyperglycemic Medications in the United States: 2002-2013

A recent study demonstrated widespread substitution of analog for human insulin and rising out-of-pocket costs in privately insured people with type 2 diabetes in the United States. Medicaid reimbursements have increased for both human insulin and more costly analog insulins. Although studies have described per-person changes in excess medical spending of US adults with diabetes on prescription medications, they have not reported trends in expenditures for different classes of antihyperglycemic medications that simultaneously consider changes in use and price.

DISCUSSION Based on a nationally representative survey, the mean price of insulin increased from $4.34 per milliliter in 2002 to $12.92 in 2013.

The estimated expenditure per patient for insulin in the United States in 2013 was greater than all other antihyperglycemic medications combined.

Another factor contributing to the rise in expenditures on insulin was increased treatment intensity.

Xinyang Hua, MSc; Natalie Carvalho, PhD; Michelle Tew, MPH; et al

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